您現在的位置︰ 紐約時報中英文網 >> 紐約時報中英文版 >> 旅游 >> 正文

美高梅官方网站_美高梅官方开户_澳门美高梅官方开户_美高梅网址

更新時間:2019/5/6 20:57:06 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

A town where most speak sign language
巴厘島手語村︰最適合聾人居住的地方

Kolok Getar flexed his biceps, puffed out his chest and jutted a pugnacious jaw. Although the old man was sitting cross-legged on the concrete floor, his wiry Balinese frame took on the characteristics of a belligerent bantam fighting cock.

克洛克•捷達(Kolok Getar)弓起二頭。 ζ鸚靨,揚起好斗的下巴。盡管這位老人盤腿坐在水泥地板上,但他那巴厘島人特有的結實體格卻將其饒勇好斗的個性表現得淋灕盡致。

“He used to be known as a real tough guy,” his nephew Wisnu smiled. “He was famous as a martial arts expert and could break coconuts in half with his hand.”

“他以前是人們口里的‘真漢子’,”他的佷子維斯努(Wisnu)笑著說。“叔叔是遠近聞名的武術大師,可以徒手把椰子掰成兩半。”

Kolok Getar pointed at a row of palms that were swaying in the hilltop breeze. His gnarled fingers formed the shape of a large sphere and he delivered a vicious chop to the imaginary coconut. The circle of friends seated on the floor around him broke into applause. Apart from their bursts of laughter (and Wisnu’s translations into Indonesian for my benefit), the entire conversation had taken place without a word being uttered.

克洛克•捷達指著山頂一排在微風中搖曳的棕櫚樹,然後將粗糙的手指握成一個大球的形狀,再狠狠地砍了腦海中假想的椰子一刀。盤坐在他周圍的朋友們爆發出一陣掌聲。但除了陣陣笑聲以及維斯努替我翻譯的話,整個對話過程都是悄無聲息的。

Kata Kolok, literally meaning ‘deaf talk’ in Indonesian, is a unique sign language that is currently the primary means of communication for just 44 people on the entire planet. For about six generations, an unusually large proportion of Bengkala’s population has been born deaf something that locals for many years attributed to a curse, but which scientists have more recently pinned down to a recessive gene (known as DFNB3) that over the decades has resulted in about one in 50 babies in this community being born deaf. But in many ways these people all deaf from birth and referred to as ‘kolok’ (deaf) by their fellow villagers are more fortunate than deaf people in other areas. That’s because more than half of the hearing people in the highland village of Bengkala have also learned Kata Kolok, solely for the benefit of communicating with deaf family members and friends.

卡塔克洛克(Kata Kolok)是一種獨特的手語,在印尼語里意為“聾人間的談話”。目前,全球僅44人仍將其用作主要的溝通手段。這個村莊本卡拉(Bengkala)的人口中有相當大的一部分人先天性失聰,這一現象持續了整整六代人。多年以來,當地人一直認為這是一種詛咒,但科學家們最近發現這是一種名為DFNB3的隱性基因引起的。在過去的幾十年里,村落里每50個嬰兒就約有一個是先天性耳聾。當地村民將這些先天性耳聾的人稱為“克洛克”(聾人)。比起其他地區,本卡拉村的聾人幸運多了。這是因為在本卡拉這個高地村莊,為了與喪失听力的家人和朋友交流,超過一半听力正常的人也學會使用“卡塔克洛克”。

Very few tourists make the two-hour drive from the tourist centre of Ubud over the volcanoes to the coastal hinterlands of north Bali, which remain one of the poorest parts of the island. Most of the kolok in Bengkala carve a subsistence living from farming or labouring, but traditionally have also been hired by their fellow villagers as security guards and gravediggers. Today, as Kolok Getar relives his martial arts glory days, he and his friends are waiting for a funeral that is scheduled to happen at the Pura Dalem (Death Temple) on the outskirts of Bengkala.

從烏布的游客中心出發,驅車兩小時,越過火山,便可到達巴厘島北部這個沿海腹地。這里至今是巴厘島最貧窮的地區之一,鮮有游客造訪。本卡拉的克洛克大多以務農或做苦力為生,但也會有村民雇他們當保安和掘墓工。如今,當克洛克•捷達重溫他武術生涯的青年光輝歲月時,他和朋友們正在等待參加一場葬禮,葬禮將在本卡拉村莊外的死亡寺廟舉行。

“When my uncle was younger, he toured the island making a small living by giving martial arts demonstrations,” Wisnu translated as Kolok Getar continued his story in a whirl of karate-chop hand signs. “He met many deaf people but could hardly communicate with them, because, if they knew sign language at all, it was a different version [from the one used in Bengkala]. Those deaf people were often lonely because they could only talk with one or two members of their close family.”

“我叔叔年輕的時候,在島上以表演武術為生。”威斯努一邊演示空手道手勢,一邊繼續講述他的故事。“在外面他遇到了很多聾人,但很難溝通。因為他們雖然會手語,但和本卡拉的手語完全不一樣。外面失聰的人很孤獨,只能和一兩個親近的家人說說話。”

By comparison, the kolok of Bengkala are relatively fortunate. They’re able to communicate with a large proportion of people in this 3,000-strong, close-knit village.

相比之下,本卡拉的聾人就幸運多了。他們能夠與這個3000人的村莊中的大部分人進行交流。

“If it’s your destiny to be born deaf,” said I Ketut Kanta, spokesman for Bengkala’s Deaf Alliance, “then this would very likely be the best place in the world to grow up!”

本卡拉聾人聯盟發言人坎塔(Ketut Kanta)說︰“如果你先天失聰,那麼這里很可能是世界上最適合你生活成長的地方!”

Hearing people are known as ‘enget’, and no matter where you are in the village you will often come across mixed groups of kolok and enget all chatting in what they call ‘deaf talk’. Whether you’re visiting the primary school, at the central temple or sipping sweet black kopi (coffee) at Pak Suparda’s little warung (stall), you’re likely to see deaf and hearing people in animated but silent conversation, or jostling each other with boisterous laughter.

听力正常的人被稱為“恩格特”。村莊里隨處可見用手語聊天的失聰者和健全人。無論你是在小學、寺廟,還是在稱為帕克甦帕達(Pak Suparda)的小攤喝香甜的黑咖啡,你都能看到他們在進行熱烈但沉默的交談,時不時發出歡快的笑聲。

The signs in Kata Kolok are often so surprisingly obvious that even a new arrival will understand: the sign for ‘male’, for example, is a rigidly pointing index finger, while the sign for ‘father’ is the same finger curved across the top lip like a moustache. ‘Woman’ is denoted with two fingers forming a narrow opening, while ‘mother’ is a cupped breast. ‘Thirsty’ is shown by the stroking of an apparently parched throat, and ‘coffee’ is a finger twisting against the forehead in the same manner that is used to denote a crazy person in the West.

卡塔克洛克的手勢很簡單,初來乍到的人都能看懂。比如說,伸直的食指代表“男性”,將食指彎曲掃過上唇則表示“父親”。環起兩只手指組成狹小通道表示“女性”,要表示“母親”則可以擺出一個乳房狀的手勢。用手指輕撫明顯干渴的喉嚨表示“口渴了”,“咖啡”則是用手指輕撥前額,和西方人表示“瘋子”的手勢一樣。

Kata Kolok has evolved naturally and is constantly being added to by the most imaginative and garrulous among the village’s signers. A side-effect of this is that this village seems to have more than its share of talented and highly energetic actors. The most effervescent of the Kata Kolok communicators bring a joyful mood of laughter and slapstick that seems to be a powerful bonding tool between the deaf and the hearing.

在卡塔克洛克自然的演變過程中,村里最具想象力和多言的手語使用者不斷向其中添加新的內容。這樣做的一個副作用就是,這個村莊似乎有太多才華橫溢、精力充沛的演員。其中最活躍的一些克洛克為大家帶來了歡聲笑語和趣聞軼事,使之成為了聾人和健全人之間緊密聯系的工具。

“Kolok and enget are paid equal rates for work in the village,” I Ketut Kanta told me. “Nevertheless, it isn’t easy for deaf people to find a job outside the village, and it is sometimes hard to get by here on local labour wages of about US$5 a day.”

坎塔告訴我︰“在村里,不管是失聰者還是健全人,工作酬勞都是一樣的。但是,聾人想在村莊外找到工作卻不容易。在這里,靠每天5美元左右的勞動工資有時很難維持生計。”

However, today Kolok Getar and his four kolok friends are fortunate: they’ve been hired to dig a grave. Balinese Hindus typically cremate their dead, but it is an expensive ceremony. So, as is common here, I Nyoman Widiarsa’s sons must bury their father while they save for the costs of a cremation.

克洛克•捷達和他的四個聾人朋友很幸運,因為有人雇他們去掘墓。巴厘島上的印度教徒會火葬死者,整個葬禮耗資巨大,但在巴厘島,這很普遍。紐曼(Nyoman Widiarsa)的兒子們為了火葬父親不得不省吃儉用。

A Balinese funeral is often unnerving to Western sensibilities since (outwardly at least) it appears often to be an almost joyous affair. The Balinese believe that if the spirit of the dead person senses grief among his family members, he may have second thoughts about moving on to the next life. That’s why the ceremony takes place with the same sort of light-hearted chatter with which the Balinese seem to do everything.

西方人很難理解巴厘島人的葬禮,因為(至少從表面上看)似乎是一件喜事。這是因為巴厘島居民相信,如果死者的靈魂感受到了家庭成員的悲傷,則可能不會投胎。這就是為什麼舉行火葬禮時,巴厘島人表現得如此輕松愉悅。

That means that the clowning and prancing of Kolok Getar and his grave-digging colleague Kolok Sudarma at the graveside was not considered inappropriate. Even the close family laughed along. They lowered the body carefully into the hole and Kolok Sudarma climbed down into the grave to place the mirrors in position back on the corpse’s eyes. These mirrors are said to guarantee that the deceased will be reborn with clear vision in the next life. (Interestingly, there is no similar ritual for the ears).

所以人們並不會覺得克洛克‧捷達和他的同事克洛克‧甦達瑪(Kolok Sudarma)在墓地邊滑稽歡騰的表現是不合時宜的,甚至連最親近的家人也會跟著大笑。他們會將尸體小心翼翼地放進洞里,甦達瑪會爬下墓穴,把鏡子反過來放在尸體的眼楮上。據說這些鏡子能保證死者來世擁有清晰的視野。(有趣的是,並沒有類似的儀式來恢復听力。)

“Hearing people used to say that the koloks could communicate with the evil spirits that haunt graveyards,” Wisnu told me, “but the truth is that they simply have a reputation for being tough and fearless.”

維斯努告訴我︰“在過去,健全人認為聾人可以與墓地中出沒的惡靈進行交流,但事實上,聾人之所以備受尊敬是因為其自身的堅忍不拔和勇敢無畏。”

Some Bengkala villagers claim their deaf friends are immune to the spooky noises whispers from the grave and evil spirits that ‘haunt’ hearing people. Others point out that manual labour and a need to fend for themselves when they leave the village has given rise to the kolok toughness. Whatever the reason, there is a noticeable level of respect in the village for the kolok community, and several villagers have set out to champion their cause.

一些本卡拉村的村民聲稱,他們的聾人朋友听不到從墓地里傳來的惡靈的聲音,但這種聲音會一直縈繞在健全人的耳邊。另一些人則認為,克洛克所付出的體力勞動以及離開村莊後必須自力更生養成了他們堅忍不拔的精神。不管基于何種理由,村民對克洛克的尊重是顯而易見的,一些村民還支持他們的事業。

I Ketut Kanta gives free Kata Kolok lessons to children. Connie de Vos, a Dutch researcher from the Centre for Language Studies at Radboud University in the Netherlands, has visited many times over the course of the last decade and helped I Ketut Kanta lobby for the inclusion of kolok children in the local school and for Kata Kolok lessons for hearing children. The village also has a craft centre, called KEM, where several kolok women are employed to produce woven textiles on traditional handlooms. The centre also attracts occasional tourist groups who come to watch kolok martial arts as well as a specially choreographed dance known as Janger Kolok, which has become locally famous and is even performed at hotels and government conferences throughout the region.

坎塔會免費教孩子們手語。荷蘭內梅亨大學語言研究中心的研究員康妮(Connie de Vos)在過去的十年中多次來參觀他的課堂,還幫助坎塔游說當地學校接納失聰兒童並為健全兒童提供手語課程。村里還有一個叫做KEM的工藝中心,雇佣了幾名失聰婦女用傳統手搖紡織機織布,並吸引了一些旅游團前來觀看聾人武術表演和一種特別編排的舞蹈聾人之舞(Janger Kolok)。這種舞蹈在當地很有名,甚至會在巴厘島的酒店里和政府會議上表演。

Linguists have established that the Kata Kolok language, like their unique dance, has little in common with other sign languages.

語言學家發現,卡塔克洛克這種手語跟當地舞蹈一樣獨特,與其他手語幾無相似之處。

“Kata Kolok has very little influence from either Indonesian or Balinese spoken language or from sign languages outside the village,” said Hannah Lutzenberger, a PhD candidate at Radboud University who is fluent in Kata Kolok after four long stints in the village. “An insight into the richness of Kata Kolok can be derived from the name signs for deaf individuals,” she continued. “All kolok are known by name signs. Because this is a vibrant signing community, these names are usually given by deaf peers relatively early in life but they can change throughout a lifetime. They usually relate either to appearance or to a personal habit.”

奈梅亨拉德堡德大學大學(Radboud University)的博士生漢娜(Hannah Lutzenberger)說︰“卡塔克洛克幾乎沒有受到印尼語、巴厘語以及其他手語的影響。卡塔克洛克所表現的豐富內涵可以從聾人的名字手勢中看出。所有的聾人都有自己的名字手勢。在這個充滿活力的手語社區中,聾人的名字通常在很年幼的時候是同齡的失聰人給取的,但是他們一生都可以隨意更換名字。這些名字通常與外表或個人習慣有關。”

Kolok Getar, for example, is known by a forward-pointing hand held in front of the mouth. It might look like a beak, but, by the time I’ve crossed paths with him several times in Bengkala’s narrow streets, I’ve noticed him adopt that same posture frequently as he acts out the martial arts glories of his younger years. I realise that this action will for all time remind me of this cheerful man.

例如,克洛克‧捷達的名字是用一只向前伸出的手放在嘴巴前面來表示的。這個手勢看起來像鳥喙。我在本卡拉村狹窄的街道上多次與他相遇,我注意到,他在表演自己青年時代習得的的武術時也經常擺出同樣的姿勢。我知道這個動作將會一直讓我想起開朗的捷達。

While he’s forgotten many of his martial arts skills, Kolok Getar is still respected in the area, even at 78 years old. He’s been given the responsibility for the maintenance of the water pipes, which in this arid northern part of the island is quite literally the lifeblood of his community. When there’s a broken pipe, it’s his job to travel up into the hills to find the break. Often the cause turns out to be people from a neighbouring village who ‘poached’ the water for their own use.

現年78歲的捷達已忘記了許多武術技巧,但仍受到當地人民的尊敬。他現在的職責是維護水管。在這個干旱的島嶼北部,水管是當地社區的命脈。如果水管破了,他的工作就是上山尋找破裂處。通常,造成水管斷裂的原因是鄰近村莊的人“偷水”。

“I try never to use violence when I catch them,” the old man signed, with such a tough and determined look that I nod my head in energetic agreement, “but I don’t need to, because people around here know that you don’t tangle with a kolok… It’s an unspoken rule.”

“抓到偷水的人,我從未使用過暴力,”老人用一種強硬而堅定的表情比劃著手勢,讓我也得用力點頭表示同意。“但其實我不需要這麼做,因為這里的人都知道不要和克洛克爭吵……這是我們這里不言而喻的規則。”

“全文請訪問紐約時報中文網,本文發表于紐約時報中文網(http://cn.nytimes.com),版權歸紐約時報公司所有。任何單位及個人未經許可,不得擅自轉載或翻譯。訂閱紐約時報中文網新聞電郵︰http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相關文章列表