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更新時間:2019/4/30 21:15:49 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

Japan Will Enthrone a New Emperor. His Wife Won’t Be Allowed to Watch.
日本新天皇即將登基,皇後卻不能出席典禮

TOKYO — As part of the historic handover of Japan’s imperial throne on Wednesday, the incoming emperor, Naruhito, will receive a sword, a jewel and official seals in a sacred ceremony that dates back thousands of years.

東京——作為周三日本皇位歷史性交接的一部分,即將繼位的德仁天皇將在可追溯到數千年的神聖典禮上接過一柄劍、一枚珠寶和御璽。

Naruhito, 59, is to take the Chrysanthemum Throne a day after his father, Emperor Akihito, 85, abdicates on Tuesday, becoming the first Japanese emperor to do so in more than 200 years.

59歲的德仁將登上菊花寶座。此前一天,他的父親、85歲的明仁天皇于周二退位,成為兩百多年來首位退位的天皇。

The ascension ceremony in a state room at the imperial palace will make history in another way: For the first time in the modern era, a woman will be present. Satsuki Katayama, the sole woman in the cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, will be on hand to witness this first step in Naruhito’s enthronement.

在皇居的國事廳舉行的登基儀式將以另一種方式創造歷史︰現代歷史上,首次有一位女性出席。首相安倍晉三(Shinzo Abe)內閣唯一的女性片山皋月(Satsuki Katayama)將在現場見證德仁天皇繼位的第一步。

But the new empress, Masako, Naruhito’s wife of 26 years, will not be allowed to attend — another illustration of the diminished status of women in the imperial family.

但新皇後、德仁26年的妻子雅子(Masako)將不被允許參加——這是女性在日本皇室地位低下的又一例證。

Under the Imperial Household Law, which governs the line of succession as well as most matters of protocol related to Japan’s monarchy, women in the royal family are not permitted to be in the room when the new emperor receives the sacred regalia signifying his rightful succession to the world’s oldest monarchy.

根據規定繼承順序以及日本相關君主制大部分禮儀的《皇室典範》(Imperial Household Law),新天皇接過代表他合法繼承世界上最古老王位的神聖寶器時,女性皇室成員不得在場。

But the prohibitions go much further. Women are not allowed to reign on the throne. In fact, women born into the royal family must officially leave it once they marry, and none of their children can be in line to the throne.

但禁例還不止于此。女性成員不能繼承王位。事實上,出生于皇室的女性在婚後必須正式脫離皇室,且其子女也全都不能作為王位繼承人。

Those rules have left the imperial family with precious few heirs. After Naruhito takes the throne, the line of succession will include his uncle, Prince Hitachi, 83, Naruhito’s younger brother, Prince Akishino, 53, and Akishino’s son, Prince Hisahito, 12. The only child of Naruhito and Masako, Princess Aiko, 17, will not be eligible to sit on the throne.

這些規定使得日本皇室繼承人選十分稀缺。德仁天皇登基後,王位繼承人選將包括他的叔叔、83歲的常陸宮正仁親王(Prince Hitachi),德仁的弟弟、53歲的秋筱宮文仁親王(Prince Akishino)及其子、12歲的悠仁親王(Prince Hisahito)。德仁和雅子的獨生女、17歲的愛子內親王(Princess Aiko)將不具有繼承王位的資格。

When Japan’s Parliament passed a one-time law in 2017 allowing Akihito to abdicate, it attached an addendum that encouraged the government to study possible reforms that would allow women in the royal family to remain within the imperial household after marrying and grant them the right to head legitimate lines of succession.

日本議會在2017年通過允許明仁天皇退位的一次性法律時,曾設附加條款,鼓勵政府研究允許皇室女性在婚後仍留在皇室,並賜予他們的子女合法繼承人權利的可能性。

Bowing to conservative pressure, the addendum did not mention allowing women to sit on the throne.

但迫于保守派的壓力,該附加條款未提及允許女性繼承王位一事。

Mr. Abe’s government, which, to mixed success, has pushed a platform of women’s empowerment in Japan’s society and economy, promised to open discussions about women in the imperial family soon after Naruhito ascends the throne this week.

安倍政府雖說成敗參半,卻已推動了日本社會和美高梅官方开户中的女性賦權,承諾在德仁本周登基後,公開討論皇室女性相關問題。

“I don’t think this would be their preference,” said Kenneth J. Ruoff, a historian and specialist in Imperial Japan at Portland State University. “But they don’t have any choice. They are facing extinction of the imperial line.”

“我認為這不會是他們更想看到的,”波特蘭州立大學史學家、日本帝國問題專家肯尼斯•J•洛夫(Kenneth J. Ruoff)說。“但他們別無選擇。他們面臨著皇室繼承人的匱乏。”

Conservatives often underscore the importance of tradition to justify the pure male line of succession.

保守派往往會強調傳統的重要性,證明純男性繼承權的合理性。

“If a female or the child of a female royal succeeds to the throne, it would be a major change,” said Hidetsugu Yagi, a professor of law and philosophy at Reitaku University in Kashiwa, Japan. “The imperial family would lose its legitimacy.”

“如果女性或皇室女性的子女繼承王位,那將是個重大轉變,”日本麗澤大學(Reitaku University in Kashiwa)法學和哲學教授八木秀次(Hidetsugu Yagi)說。“皇族將失去它的正統性。”

But historians point out that imperial traditions have changed over time.

但歷史學家指出,皇室傳統已隨時間推移發生過改變。

“The idea that succession is limited to males is a modern invention,” said Kathryn Tanaka, an associate professor of cultural and historical studies at Otemae University in Nishinomiya, Japan. She added, “This is not about ‘tradition,’ but rather reflects specific political and patriarchal world views.”

“繼承權僅限于男性是現代才有的觀點,”日本大手前大學(Otemae University in Nishinomiya)文化與歷史研究副教授田中凱瑟琳(Kathryn Tanaka)說。她還說,“這無關‘傳統’,而是特定政治、宗法世界觀的反映。”

The Japanese stipulation that the throne must pass through the male line dates back only to the Meiji era in the 19th century. Japanese myth traces the emperor’s lineage back 2,700 years, and in the 125 generations of recorded monarchs, eight women were allowed to rule as empresses when no adult men were eligible at the time.

日本皇位男系男子繼承制僅可追溯到19世紀的明治時期。日本神話將天皇承襲追溯至2700年前,在125代有記載的君王中,當符合條件的成年男子繼承人缺失時,8位女性曾獲準以女皇身份進行統治。

Public opinion also strongly favors allowing women to sit on the throne. In a poll conducted by The Asahi Shimbun, Japan’s second largest daily newspaper, more than three-quarters of those surveyed said they would support a female emperor.

公眾輿論也強烈支持允許女性登上皇位。日本第二大日報《朝日新聞》的一項民意調查顯示,超過四分之三的受訪者表示,他們會支持女天皇。

Japan’s royal family is out of step with monarchies elsewhere in the world. In Britain, Queen Elizabeth II has sat on the throne for more than six decades, and royal successors in the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Norway and Spain are all young women.

日本皇室與世界其他地方的君主制國家步調不一。在英國,伊麗莎白二世(Queen Elizabeth II)女王已在位60多年,荷蘭、比利時、瑞典、挪威和西班牙的王室繼承人都是年輕女性。

Analysts point out that even excluding the new empress from a key part of her husband’s enthronement ceremony is incongruent with Japan’s efforts to promote gender equality.

分析人士指出,將新皇後排除在丈夫登基儀式的關鍵部分之外,這種做法也與日本促進性別平等的努力不符。

“They are forgetting how this is going to play internationally,” said Nancy Snow, a professor of public diplomacy at Kyoto University of Foreign Studies. “Just the image of the cabinet with one woman sticking out and then, hey, where’s his wife, the future empress — that would be my question.”

“他們忘記了這會產生什麼樣的國際影響,”京都外國語大學(Kyoto University of Foreign Studies)公共外交學教授南希•斯諾(Nancy Snow)說。“內閣里只有一個女人,看到這樣的畫面,我不禁會想,嘿,他的妻子,未來的皇後在哪兒?”

Given that Akihito’s abdication itself represents a break with tradition, observers say the transition to a new era is a good opportunity to refresh other customs of the imperial family.

鑒于明仁天皇的退位本身就代表著對傳統的突破,觀察人士表示,向新時代的過渡是對皇室其他傳統做出革新的好機會。

“I would like for my granddaughter to be inheriting a world where people say, ‘No, that might be the tradition, but like we’ve been able to change the view on abdication, we now have changed the view on female members of the imperial family not being present at this ceremony,’” said Melanie Brock, who has lived in Japan for 27 years and runs a consulting firm for foreign companies looking to do business in Japan.

“我希望我的孫女能夠繼承這樣一個世界,人們會說,‘不,這可能是傳統,但是既然我們能夠改變對退位的觀念,我們現在也能改變女性皇室成員不出席儀式的觀念,”梅蘭妮•布魯克(Melanie Brock)說,她在日本生活了27年,目前經營一家咨詢公司,為希望在日本做生意的外國公司提供服務。

The incoming empress herself, Masako, was once a symbol of potential change in the monarchy. Before she married Naruhito, she was a fast-rising diplomat in Japan’s Foreign Ministry, and some hoped that she could help modernize the role of women in the imperial family.

即將成為皇後的雅子曾是君主制有可能發生變革的象征。在嫁給德仁之前,她是日本外務省一名快速崛起的外交官,一些人希望她能幫助日本皇室實現女性角色的現代化。

But when she became a princess, she gave up her career and suffered under intense pressure to produce a male heir. She has largely stayed out of the public eye in recent years.

但她成為太子妃後放棄了自己的事業,承受著要生男性繼承人的巨大壓力。近年來,她基本上遠離了公眾的視線。

“Her presence communicates with the Japanese public her sacrifice and reluctance and ambivalence at even being there,” said Kumiko Nemoto, professor of sociology at Kyoto University School of Foreign Studies.

“她的存在向日本公眾傳達了她的犧牲精神,以及置身那里的不情願和矛盾心理,”京都大學外國語大學社會學教授根本宮美子(Kumiko Nemoto)說。

Ms. Nemoto said that Masako, in giving up professional life when she married, “made a sacrifice that a lot of women in her generation made.”

根本宮美子說,雅子在結婚後放棄了職業生涯,“做出了她那一代很多女性都做出的犧牲”。

Given how long it took for Parliament to pass a law allowing Akihito to abdicate — he is stepping down close to three years after he indicated he wanted to retire — any change is likely to come slowly.

鑒于日本國會花了很長時間才通過一項允許明仁天皇退位的法律——明仁天皇暗示希望退休近三年後才得以卸任——任何改變都可能來得很慢。

Still, given efforts made by Japanese women to embrace both career and family, “I think there is a feeling among ordinary Japanese people that we have to change the system as the expectations of society change,” said Masako Egawa, a professor of business administration at Hitotsubashi University in Tokyo.

盡管如此,由于日本女性為兼顧事業和家庭所做的努力,“我認為,普通日本民眾有一種感覺,隨著社會期望的改變,我們必須改變體制,”東京一橋大學(Hitotsubashi University)工商管理學教授江川雅子(Masako Egawa)說。

But political analysts warned against investing the imperial family with too much power to influence social change.

但政治分析人士警告,不要讓皇室擁有太多影響社會變革的權力。

“It is nonsense from my perspective that the new empress cannot attend the important ceremony of succession,” said Lully Miura, who runs a think tank called the Yamaneko Research Institute.

“在我看來,新皇後不能出席重要的繼任儀式簡直荒唐透頂,”智庫山貓綜合研究所(Yamaneko Research Institute)所長三浦麗(Lully Miura)表示。

“Having said that, I also must express my concern over the politicization of the imperial family, which might undermine autonomous democratic institutions. Both sides of the Japanese political spectrum try to use the imperial family to promote their own political agenda.”

“話雖如此,我也必須表示我對皇室政治化的關切,因為這可能破壞自治的民主體制。日本政壇的兩派都試圖利用皇室來推動自己的政治議程。”

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