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更新時間:2019/4/28 20:53:55 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

Big Hairy Neighbours
毛茸茸的大塊頭鄰居︰與野熊共處是什麼滋味?

How do you fancy living with Paddington? Sounds endearing?

想和帕丁頓熊一起生活嗎?听起來還不錯?(帕丁頓熊是英國兒童文學的一個虛構角色,與人是好朋友,住在倫敦。)

The reality of having a bear at close quarters is rather more intimidating, as 95 year old Anna Stady from Vancouver Island discovered. As a former cook in logging camps she’d encountered bears before, so when she discovered a black bear rooting about in her home for food she simply shooed him off. He returned, still keen to finish his picnic, and BC Conservation Officers Service set up a trap for him. He hasn’t been back since, to Anna’s relief, as she doesn’t want him killed.

事實上,如果你家附近有一只熊可能會把你嚇破膽。加拿大溫哥華島的95歲老人安娜(Anna Stady)就曾有過這樣的體驗。她在伐木營地當廚師時就曾經遇到過熊,所以當發現黑熊在家四處覓食時,就馬上把熊趕走。可是後來,垂涎食物的黑熊又回來了,不列顛哥倫比亞省自然保護服務處不得不給熊設了個陷阱。從那以後,黑熊再也沒有回來過,安娜終于松了一口氣,因為她可不希望命喪熊口。

It’s not uncommon for black bears and grizzlies in the US and Canada to scavenge through bins and make their dens under houses. In response, educational programmes are run to make families “bear-smart”; disposing of rubbish in locked bins and not encouraging bears so bears and humans can live in happy harmony. Bears come off worse in their interactions with humans, although there have been rare human fatalities - one 10 year study showed that of some 150 urban bears in the US, all were killed by people.

在美國和加拿大,黑熊和灰熊經常會在人類的垃圾箱里覓食,在人類的房屋下築窩。于是,一些澳门美高梅官方开户項目開始教導人們如何與熊打交道,比如說垃圾桶要上鎖,不要喂食野熊之類,這樣熊和人類才能和諧共存。人類受熊襲擊致死的事件比較罕見,但熊遭遇人類其實是佔下風。一項歷時10年的研究顯示,150只生活在美國城市里的熊全部被人類捕殺掉。

Jack Clement and Dayna Feist-Clement of Asheville, North Carolina, had their bird feeder regularly raided by a young black bear, who Jack named Bruno, in 2009. Bruno was succeeded by Thistle, a female with cubs, who took over Bruno’s den under their fence. The cubs kept Jack and Dayna entertained by falling out of trees and playing in their walnut tree.

2009年,北卡羅來納州阿什維爾市的杰克(Jack Clement)和黛娜(Dayna Feist-Clement)發現一只杰克稱之為布魯諾(Bruno)的小黑熊常到他們家的喂鳥器覓食。隨後他們稱之為西斯爾(Thistle)的一只母熊帶著幼崽接管了他們家柵欄下的布魯諾巢穴。小熊們會從樹上掉下來,在他家的核桃樹上玩耍,杰克和黛娜被逗得很開心。

William Withers and his family on their Ashville smallholding can feel as if they’re in a running battle with their hairy neighbours. 50 of the Withers’ chickens have been taken by bears in the last year, the bears open the family’s car doors looking for snacks, and William had to chase a large bear off his porch which had been attracted by the smell of dog food. The visitor was persistent and William finished up throwing a stick at him to frighten him away, and then fired up his chainsaw to keep him off. “We keep air horns and pepper spray handy at all times,” says William. “This is the type of bear that we worry about. He did not have much fear even when I jumped at him. Bears that have lost their instinctive fear can become aggressive.” While the relationship may sound contentious, William, among other residents of Ashville, loves his hairy neighbours, “You’d think they would be a matted, greasy animal, but they are fluffy and clean and wild.” Residents feel a huge sense of responsibility for the bears and maintaining distance between landowners and wild bears takes priority for the welfare of the bears.

但阿什維爾(Ashville)一家小農場的威廉‧威瑟斯(William Withers)及其家人則感覺自己就像在和毛茸茸的鄰居進行一場持久戰。去年,野熊叼走了威瑟斯家50只雞,還打開了他們家的車門覓食,威廉不得不追著一只被狗糧氣味吸引的大熊,直到把它趕出門廊。這只野熊十分難纏,威廉最後朝它扔了一根棍子嚇唬它,隨後開動電鋸才把它趕走。威廉說︰“我們一直把空氣喇叭和胡椒噴霧放在手邊。我們最怕這種熊,因為即使我朝它沖過去,它也不為所動。失去了對人的恐懼本能的熊很危險。”雖然這樣的人熊關系听起來很矛盾,但威廉和阿什維爾的其他居民其實都很喜歡這些毛茸茸的鄰居。“你可能會覺得這些野熊油膩邋遢,但實際上它們毛茸茸的、干淨而野性十足。”居民們對熊有著強烈的責任感,保持土地所有者和野熊之間的距離是保護它們的關鍵。

Also feeling that sense of responsibility is Jack. He is convinced that humans need to respect the bears as the consequences could be dire. For example, in Asheville motorists will stop and watch the bears ambling alongside the road which means they lose their fear of cars and are frequently in collisions. “They are here to stay and we need to educate ourselves on proper behaviour”, he says. “If we don’t get this right, bad things can happen to us and the bears too will suffer as a result.”

杰克也有這種責任感。他堅信,人類要尊重熊,否則後果將不堪設想。例如,在阿什維爾,開車的人會停下來看熊在路邊散步,這意味著它們不再害怕汽車,所以經常發生車撞到熊的事故。他表示︰“這里是熊的棲息地,我們要學習與它們共處。否則,我們會自食惡果,熊也會因此遭殃。”

And his advice if a bear comes calling? Scare them away by yelling, banging pots together or using an air horn. And absolutely, definitely no marmalade sandwiches.

那麼,如果野熊來訪,他的建議是什麼呢?你可以大喊大叫、敲打罐子或者用空氣喇叭把它們嚇跑,但絕對不要給熊喂食果醬三明治。

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