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更新時間:2019/4/26 22:12:13 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

The community battling overfishing
美食與生態︰非洲龍蝦捕撈的兩難困境

In a small village in southern Madagascar, locals make their living fishing for lobster using handmade palm leaf pots and wooden boats.

在馬達加斯加島南部的一個小村莊里,當地人用手工編的棕櫚葉蝦籠和木頭船捕捉龍蝦為生。

At sunrise on the palm fringed beach of Manafiafy village, in the community of Sainte Luce, pirogues (wooden canoes) come surfing in on the waves in their dozens. Locals haul the heavy boats up onto the beach and begin counting and weighing their catch; beautiful spiny lobsters that have been caught in pots made of hand-woven palm leaves.

日出時分,聖呂斯(Sainte Luce)地區的瑪娜菲亞村(Manafiafy),棕櫚樹環繞的海灘上,數十只出海捕蝦的獨木舟已乘浪回來。當地人把沉甸甸的船拖到海灘上,開始清點他們用手編棕櫚葉蝦籠捕獲的獵物,給這些漂亮多刺的龍蝦稱重。

Small-scale lobster fishing in Sainte Luce is the main source of income for 80% of households and it’s the key lobster fishery for the region of Anosy, where lobster exports provide the most significant contribution to the regional economy and make up the majority of national lobster exports. In recent years, however, catches have declined, most likely due to overfishing and unpredictable weather patterns, threatening the security of the impoverished community’s main income stream.

在聖呂斯,用小船捕撈龍蝦是80%家庭的主要收入來源。聖呂斯也是阿諾西區(Anosy)龍蝦捕撈業支柱。龍蝦出口不僅對阿諾西區的美高梅官方开户貢獻最大,也佔全國龍蝦出口的大部分。然而近年來,很可能是因為過度捕撈和不可預測的天氣模式,漁獲量下降,已威脅到這個貧困地區的主要收入來源。

In response to the decline in catches, the fishermen, with the help of British NGO SEED Madagascar, have implemented a locally managed marine area which includes a no-take zone with an area of 13km2 for the majority of the year. The project has shown great success in rebalancing stocks and saving an important industry in Sainte Luce. So much so that surrounding communities are now implementing their own no-take zones.

為了應對漁獲量的下降,聖呂斯漁民們在英國非政府機構“永續環境澳门美高梅官方开户與發展”(SEED)馬達加斯加分部的幫助下,建立了一個由當地人管理的海域,其中包括一片面積為13平方公里、一年大部分時間禁捕的海域範圍。這個項目重新平衡了水產蘊藏量,也拯救了對聖呂斯頗為重要的漁業 ,成績非常顯著,以至于周邊地區競相效仿,紛紛建立起自己的禁捕海域區。

I was in Sainte Luce investigating the impact of climate change in Madagascar and spent the morning on the beach talking to fisherman about their work and how things have changed. Along the beach, buyers were going from boat to boat as they came in, inspecting the catch and weighing the bigger lobsters. The fishermen were nervously waiting around to see how much they’d make that day.

我在聖呂斯調查氣候變化對馬達加斯加島的影響時,曾花了一個早上跟漁民在海灘上聊他們的工作和他們所經歷的變化。買家們到達後,會沿著海灘一條船一條船地查看,選出較大的龍蝦稱重。漁民們則緊張地等待著,想知道那天他們可以掙到多少錢。

On the beach, a man named Andry Christin was going from boat to boat with a clipboard. He lives in the village and has been working to monitor the locally managed marine area. He records weights and sizes of the lobsters and checks whether they are females with eggs. He explains that he wants to teach the fisherman about throwing back small lobsters so they can grow to full size as well as leaving any females with eggs. This is part of the project but it’s a hard part to implement, he explains, people say to me. “We need money to buy rice because we can't grow it here so we must sell all we can.”

在海灘上,一個叫克里斯。ndry Christin)的男人正拿著筆記板從一條船走到另一條船。他就住在村子里,負責監測由當地人管理的海域。他記錄下龍蝦的重量和大。 掛﹤觳槭欠褚延脅訓拇葡。他解釋說,他想說服漁民們把小蝦丟回大海讓小蝦長大,以及放過產卵的雌蝦。這是項目的一部分,但很難實施。因為人們總是說“我需要錢買大米,因為我們這里不能種大米,所以我們必須把所有能賣掉的都賣掉。”

The Chef Cartier (chief) of the village, Benagnomby Foara, says that weather patterns have become far more unpredictable so they can’t tell when the rains will come like they used to and often have crop failures. Lobster fishing is vital so people can buy food when they can’t grow anything reliably, but, he says, the climate affects the fishing too. “We have a lot more storms now and it’s dangerous to go out in stormy weather, some people risk it when they are desperate, but it’s not safe.”

村長弗拉(Benagnomby Foara)說,天氣模式變得越來越難預測,所以他們很難像過去那樣預測何時會下雨,因此農作物常常歉收。當種植業靠不住的時候,龍蝦捕撈對當地人就至關重要,讓他們可以購買食物。但村長說,氣候也影響捕撈。“我們現在遇到的風暴很多,在暴風雨天氣出︰ O,有些人在絕望的時候會冒險行事,但這並不安全。”

The day I am on the beach the weather is beautiful, but that can be a hindrance too. Lobsters are going for about 80 pence for 1kg. The most a boat brings in that day is 2kg and each boat has three to four people working on it. They tell me it was a bad catch day; lobsters don’t like the sun because they can’t hide from predators very well. Christin explains that sometimes he sees people bring in 20kg, but that’s very rare. “When my grandfather was fishing, he would sometimes bring in 100kg per boat in one day, but that could never happen anymore.”

我在海灘上的那天天氣很好,但好天氣也可能是麻煩。龍蝦的價格快到每公斤80便士,但那天捕獲最多的一條船也只帶回2公斤,而一條船上有三、四個人一同工作。他們告訴我那天不是捕蝦的好天氣。龍蝦不喜歡陽光,因為陽光下沒辦法躲避捕獵者。克里斯丁解釋說,他有時候會看到有人捕撈到20公斤,但這非︰奔。“我祖父打漁的時候,他有時一天一條船能帶回100公斤漁獲,現在是不可能的了。”

They may never see the 100kg catches of days gone by, but with the new managed areas in place, lobster stocks are increasing and this is helping the local community. Despite the enthusiasm of the local communities to continue implementing no-take zones, the changing climate still poses a problem for them.

他們可能永遠都看不到過去日捕100公斤的日子了,但隨著新的管理海域的設立,龍蝦的數量正在增加,這對當地社區是非常有益的。但盡管當地人熱衷于繼續建立禁捕區,氣候變化對他們來說依然是個問題。

“We will continue to do our best to manage the lobster stocks, but we can’t control the weather.”

“我們會繼續盡最大努力維持和增加海域的龍蝦數量,但我們無法控制氣候。”

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