您現在的位置︰ 紐約時報中英文網 >> 紐約時報中英文版 >> 風尚 >> 正文

美高梅官方网站_美高梅官方开户_澳门美高梅官方开户_美高梅网址

更新時間:2019/4/25 20:29:43 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

A forgotten food of the American South
美國南部“有毒的”家鄉菜老味道

It was Mother’s Day weekend, and late spring teased the three-month inferno that North Carolinians call summer. I’d been waiting for this moment: for the first time in my adult life, I was planting a proper garden.

那是母親節的周末,在北卡羅來納州,暮春時節,一派好風光,夏天仿佛按捺不住誘惑,腳步更近了,到時候將熱浪滾滾,酷暑難耐。我一直盼望,這一天終于來了——我擺花弄草,布置了一座花園,這還是人生中的頭一回。

As I marked off the boundaries for the compost heap, a tiller hummed alongside me, simultaneously ripping up chunks of red clay earth on one side and spitting pulverised, marble-sized fragments out the other. Its operator finished the last row, leaned over the clunky equipment and let out a long, deep sigh the kind that comes from physical labour.

我闢出一塊地,專門用于堆肥,我旁邊有一台耕作機,嗡嗡作響,在這台機器的一頭,大塊的紅黏土被打碎,在另一頭,紅黏土變成彈珠那麼大的細碎顆粒,機器同時將出料撒到地上。播撒工作全部完成後,操作工人倚在笨重的農機上,長舒一口氣,終于干完活了。

“You’ve got a bunch of poke salad over there,” he said casually, gesturing towards the chain-link fence running the border of my property.

我的園地用鋼絲網眼柵欄圍起來,他用手指著柵欄,漫不經心地說道︰“那邊有一茬商陸呢,嫩芽可以做色拉(沙拉)。”

My eyes followed his gaze, settling on the tall, leafy stalks of vibrant greens along the fence. As soon as he said the words poke salad a stream of memories flooded my brain: how my mother and aunts would pull the car over on a country road to pick a good patch of poke salad, also called pokeweed; the quick and precise way they snapped the leaves from their stalks; the smell of my great-grandmother preparing the bounty in her kitchen, finishing the dish with bacon grease scooped from an old Crisco can she kept on the stove.

順著他的目光望去,只見柵欄邊上,商陸立于田間,植株上掛滿葉子,綠意盎然。他剛才提到商陸嫩芽,一听到這個,前塵往事涌入腦海︰在鄉間小路上,母親和姑媽開著車,去采新鮮的商陸嫩芽,就是所謂的美洲商陸;她們采摘綠睫商陸苗,動作迅速,手法嫻熟;廚房里,曾祖母為全家人做飯,香氣四溢,灶台上有一個科瑞黃油(Crisco)的罐子,用了很多年,里面放著咸肉油脂,出鍋之前加一勺葷油,美味便大功告成了。

A wild green that grows abundantly throughout the United States, pokeweed is especially plentiful in Appalachia, a cultural region that follows the Appalachian Mountains from southern New York State to north-eastern Mississippi, as well as the rest of the American South. The cooked, finished greens are called poke sallet; and ‘polk salad’, a spelling popularised in Louisiana native Tony Joe White’s 1969 swamp-rock hit Polk Salad Annie. I hadn’t heard the words since I left my sleepy hometown of Sanford, a rural town (at least when I lived there) located smack dab in the middle of North Carolina, 25 years ago.

全美各地都有這種天然野菜,但阿巴拉契亞(Appalachia)一帶盛產美洲商陸。這一地區是指阿巴拉契亞山脈中、南段一帶,從紐約州南部到密西西比州東北部的一帶,包括美國南部的其他一些地區。人們將天然野菜炒熟、拌勻,這道菜名為商陸嫩芽色拉(poke sallet,polk salad);沼澤搖滾歌手喬•懷特(Tony Joe White)出生于路易斯安那州,1969年發布新歌《做野菜色拉的安妮》(Polk Salad Annie),風靡一時,這道菜也廣為人知。我的家鄉桑福縣(Sanford)位于北卡羅來納州正當中,是死氣沉沉的鄉鎮(至少我在那里的時候是這樣),在離開家鄉的25年里,我再也沒听到人們說起這道菜。

After spending the last decade of that time away as a Colorado-based digital nomad and taking an eight-month sojourn in Mexico, I’d just returned to North Carolina. Now that I had an actual yard, I was determined to grow at least some of my own food. Looking at the showy greens lining the fence, I suddenly wondered: do people still eat poke sallet?

在過去的10年間,我住在科羅拉多州,是數字游民,在墨西哥旅居8個月,剛剛回到北卡羅來納州。既然有這麼一塊地,我便下定決心,至少種一點自己吃的菜蔬。我望著柵欄邊上,美洲商陸蒼翠欲滴,頓時,我感到很好奇︰人們還會吃商陸嫩芽色拉嗎?

The short answer is yes and no. If you ask older Southerners, many still remember eating poke sallet, or at least knowing someone who did. But millennials? Forget about it. I asked dozens of people about poke sallet after the tiller incident in my garden, and not a single person under the age of 40 had a clue what I was talking about. To understand why it disappeared from Americans’ tables and why it’s experiencing a slight renaissance due to the foraging movement one must delve into the green’s storied history.

答案是︰有的人會吃,有的人不吃。美國南部的中老年人中,很多人依然對商陸嫩芽色拉有印象,他們吃過這道菜。但對千禧一代呢?別提了。上次在田間遇到那個工人,他知道那是商陸,後來,我又問過幾十個人,毫無例外,40歲以下的人壓根兒就不知道商陸嫩芽色拉。

Pokeweed was a dietary staple throughout Appalachia for generations. “It was a food that you ate mostly because you were poor, and that’s not necessarily something that everyone wanted to embrace,” said Mike Costello, chef and farmer at Lost Creek Farm in West Virginia. As subsequent generations became more financially successful than their parents’, the need to forage wild foods dwindled.

在整個阿巴拉契亞地區,祖祖輩輩的食譜里都少不了美洲商陸。西弗吉尼亞州迷失溪農。ost Creek Farm)的農夫兼主廚科斯特洛(Mike Costello)說︰“因為生活貧困,人們才以此為食,未必人人都欣然為之。一代接著一代,人們的生活越來越富裕,不用去挖野菜,這方面的需求有所下降。”

“Most narratives about foods like poke sallet are associated with shame, poverty or desperation but to me, the story is more about ingenuity and resourcefulness,” Costello said. “Those are things that people can be proud of.”

科斯特洛說︰“在大多數人口中,吃嫩芽色拉等野菜,說明人們地位卑微,生活貧困,處于絕望之中。但對我而言,在更大程度上,說明人們有妙招,有辦法,這是驕傲與自豪。”

If you live in the south-eastern US, you’ve likely seen plenty of pokeweed growing wild and never knew the name. The hardy perennial plant can grow up to 10ft tall and thrives almost anywhere: beside ditches, along fences, near livestock pastures, even in deserted city lots. Once mature, it has unmistakably flamboyant foliage, thick, magenta-tinted stems, and dark purple or black berries.

如果你住在美國東南部地區,這種野菜你可能見得很多,只是從來不知道此物為何。這種多年生植物,高可達10英尺,各處均有︰水溝邊,柵欄旁,牧草地周圍,乃至無人問津的城市荒地上。成熟後,葉片鮮綠而有光澤,睫紫紅色,粗壯,漿果熟時呈紫黑色或黑色。

Like many foraged foods, pokeweed comes with a catch: it can be toxic if prepared incorrectly.

很多天然野菜都會被誤食,美洲商陸也不例外。商陸全株有毒,誤食會導致中毒。

“In Appalachia, living off the land was an important element years ago, and a lot of our older generation still remember what you can and cannot eat in the wild,” said Brandon Pennington, executive director of the City of Harlan Tourist and Convention Commission, which hosts the annual Poke Sallet Festival in Harlan, Kentucky. “However, with mass farming and food being so immediately available in our world, that art is lost.”

每年,在肯塔基州哈倫縣(Harlan),旅游和傳統委員會(Tourist and Convention Commission)都會舉辦美洲商陸嫩芽色拉節(Poke Sallet Festival)慶祝活動,常務董事柏寧頓(Brandon Pennington)說︰“很多年前,在阿巴拉契亞地區,人們靠野菜生活,這很重要,什麼能吃,什麼不能吃,許多長輩對此仍有印象。然而,隨著大規模農業種植,如今食品供應這麼充足,這種野菜文化逐漸淡出人們的視野。”

Though the berries of the poke plant have been used for everything from ink to lipstick (Dolly Parton famously wrote about the latter in her inspirational book Dream More: Celebrate the Dreamer in You), you should never eat them nor the roots, stalk, seeds or raw leaves of the pokeweed. Powerful toxins reside in these parts of the plant and although no deaths from eating poke sallet have been officially recorded in modern times, children frequently get sick from eating the berries, which resemble wild grape clusters when mature. Most often, symptoms include severe stomach cramps, rapid heartbeat, vomiting, diarrhoea and difficulty breathing.

從墨水到唇膏,商陸漿果的用途很廣(對于後者,鄉村樂壇的著名女歌手帕頓(Dolly Parton)在其勵志類文學作品《志存高遠︰活在現實里的夢想家》(Dream More: Celebrate the Dreamer in You)中有所提及)。雖然如此,商陸果實不能食用,根、睫、種子也不能食用,葉片不能生吃。美洲商陸全株有毒,毒性非常強。雖然據統計,尚未出現不慎使用而導致死亡的情況,不過,成熟的果實一串串下垂,常被兒童誤作野生葡萄服用,從而導致中毒。中毒癥狀為︰腹部抽搐,心跳加劇,嚴重嘔吐,痢疾以及呼吸困難。

Pokeweed’s toxicity increases as the plant matures, especially in the root system, which should be avoided altogether at all growth stages. Leaves are the least toxic parts of the poke plant, followed by the stems and berries. That’s why only the leaves of young spring plants should be picked, and then cooked thoroughly. It was through trial and error that Native Americans, African slaves and other people from the region figured out the delicate balance of how to prepare and consume this bountiful, early-sprouting green without becoming unwell.

商陸越成熟,毒性越強,特別是地下睫塊,在任何成長階段,都不宜食用。果實和睫的毒性次之,葉片的毒性最小。春季萌發嫩芽,人們只能采摘嫩葉,帶回家烹飪,不能生吃,這便是原因所在。嫩芽是大自然的饋贈,享用美味時,應采用哪種烹飪手法,才不至于引起中毒,人們經過多次嘗試,包括美洲原住民、非洲奴隸和這一地區的其他民族,才摸清其中的門道。

The first time or two, it’s best to pick pokeweed with someone who knows their stuff; otherwise, you may mistake poke for just another weed. Or, if you can identify the mature plant (which is much easier due to the distinctive purple stalk and berries), you can mark the spot and return the following spring when the perennial plant is young and edible. The wide, almond-shaped leaves should be picked while the plant is young and tender ideally between 1ft to 2ft high and before there is any purple at all on the stalk, stems or leaves.

對于新手,最好跟著有經驗的人,一起去采摘美洲商陸;否則,人們可能誤認為這是別的植物。如果人們發現野果進入成熟期(這較為容易,睫紫色,漿果黑色,極易辨認),可以在這里留個記號,商陸是多年生植物,第二年春季萌發嫩芽時,可以來這里采摘天然野菜。春季萌發嫩芽時,高1至2英尺為佳,葉大,長橢圓形,可以采摘,睫干或葉片帶紫紅色時,則不能食用。

Now comes the (questionably) fun part: the raw leaves should be rinsed and boiled to remove the plant’s toxins. Cover with water, bring to a boil, and then drain and ‘squeeze’ the greens using a spatula or wooden spoon. Repeat this process three times, then saut  the greens in a pan with bacon grease and seasoning like salt and pepper to taste. It’s a time-consuming process, and like most greens poke cooks down dramatically, so you need a lot of it for just a few servings. Some say poke sallet tastes like turnip greens or spinach, with a slight iron or mineral aftertaste.

下面說一說有意思的地方(這麼說可能有問題)︰將鮮葉洗淨、焯水,殺菌消毒。水沒過嫩葉,煮至沸騰,將水倒掉,用橡皮刮刀或木鏟把野菜“擰干”。以上步驟重復三次,然後,素菜配葷油,下鍋炒熟,鹽少許,胡椒少許。這是很費時的事兒,像大多蔬菜那樣,商陸一下鍋,嫩葉蜷縮起來,一大捧野菜看起來沒有多少,因此,炒一盤商陸要用很多嫩葉。有的人說嫩芽色拉的味道像蕪菁葉或菠菜,富含鐵和礦物質,有澀澀的感覺。

So why would anyone go to all this trouble to cook a weed that can make you sick? “It’s something that represents more than just flavours or ingredients,” Costello said. “It’s a piece of who you are and your connection to those landscapes.”

這種野菜能引起中毒,而人們不惜一切代價,在廚房里炒菜,為什麼呢?科斯特洛說︰“這不僅僅停留在味道或用料的層面,這關乎你身為何人,關乎你對故土的眷戀。”

Will pokeweed join the ranks of trendy foraged foods like ramps and chanterelle mushrooms? Probably not. However, there are a handful of chefs who are brave enough to serve it to the masses. Chef Clark Barlowe, owner of Heirloom in Charlotte, North Carolina, grew up surrounded by pokeweed in the western part of the state, but had never seen it prepared.

如今,人們采摘北美野韭和雞油菌,這很流行,美洲商陸也會有這樣的待遇嗎?也許不會。然而,有幾位主廚很有開拓精神,為食客奉上美洲商陸。巴洛(Clark Barlowe)是北卡羅來納州夏洛特市(Charlotte)“傳家寶餐廳”(Heirloom)的老板兼主廚,在北卡西部度過童年的時光,經常見到美洲商陸,但從未見過如何烹食。

“When I opened the restaurant in 2014, I had a renewed interest in it and asked my Nana my mom’s mother to teach me about the preparation,” he said. “From there, it was simply a matter of teaching my cooks the technique, foraging some young poke, and we were off to the races.”

他說︰“2014年,我的餐廳開張,我又對商陸產生了興趣,去請教外婆,讓她告訴我做菜的方法。然後,我便將做法傳授給後廚人員,采摘嫩芽,然後就成了生意。”

Each spring, Barlowe features the green on Heirloom’s tasting menu for one month while it is in prime season. “We have a poke patch that grows right next to the restaurant so it’s a fairly easy get for us, and some regular customers bring us the perfect-sized leaves when they are weeding their yards.”

春天是品嘗商陸嫩芽的好時節,黃金期為一個月,在傳家寶餐廳的品嘗菜單上,巴洛會推出這道時令菜。“就在餐廳旁邊,有一塊商陸菜地,采摘很方便,有的老顧客在院子除草時,會給我們送來商陸嫩葉,是標準的長橢圓形。”

Undoubtedly, some chefs are intimidated by serving potentially toxic foraged foods. But Barlowe is confident in his staff and cooking technique the same three-boil method Nana used. In the past, he’s served pokeweed ice cream made with juice from those exotic, dark purple berries (which must be carefully pressed to avoid breaking any poisonous seeds), and next spring he plans to experiment with a ‘poke punch’ recipe from the 1800s, a simple concoction of orange juice, soda water, mint and pokeweed juice. Barlowe says he may put a slight twist on the recipe by adding what he calls ‘rooftop honey water’, a secondary product that comes from making beeswax from the honeybees he keeps on the restaurant’s roof.

這種天然野菜有毒,可能引起顧客中毒,有的廚師因此感到很害怕。但是,巴洛相信後廚人員,相信這種方法可以殺菌消毒,冷水下鍋,煮至沸騰,重復三遍,外婆就用這種方法。過去,人們可以點商陸冰激凌,漿果熟時紫黑色,很誘人,多汁水,用作冰激凌的原料(壓榨時務必謹慎,以免擠破種子,種子有毒)。明年春天,他會推出新品,以19世紀“商陸潘趣酒”(poke punch)的配方為參考,用柳橙汁、甦打水、薄荷和商陸汁調制飲品。巴洛表示,他可能稍加改良,蜂蠟是蜂群的產品,蜂蜜水是蜂蠟的副產品,巴洛將其存放于餐廳的屋頂上,稱之為“屋頂花園蜂蜜水”,巴洛會將蜂蜜水加入飲品中。

You can also grab a poke sallet plate with all the fixings at the Poke Sallet Festival in late May and early June. Otherwise, it looks like it’s up to the home cooks of Appalachia and the US South, foodies, and foragers to keep the tradition of preparing poke sallet alive.

五月底、六月初時,當地舉辦美洲商陸嫩芽色拉節慶祝活動,人們可以品嘗嫩芽色拉以及各種配菜。而且,只有阿巴拉契亞地區和美國南部的家庭料理師、美食家和采摘人員共同努力,讓人們品嘗美味,這種傳統食品才能流芳百世。

“全文請訪問紐約時報中文網,本文發表于紐約時報中文網(http://cn.nytimes.com),版權歸紐約時報公司所有。任何單位及個人未經許可,不得擅自轉載或翻譯。訂閱紐約時報中文網新聞電郵︰http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相關文章列表